The global pandemic has laid bare the digital inequities across vertical (income) and horizontal (social, political, and identity) dimensions, while exposing the extent to which pre-pandemic approaches to bridging the digital divide have been dominated by economic considerations even while they are not universally treated as policy priorities.
Systemic and legal barriers to equal political participation persist at all levels and take different forms, including unfavorable electoral systems, lack of support from political parties, socio-economic, and cultural. Women, people with disabilities, indigenous people, LGBT+ individuals, and young people face all of these barriers, particularly insufficient access to political finance.
There are multiple examples of solidarity taxes imposed across country contexts over previous decades. The solidarity taxes that were levied were done to mitigate effects of a crisis such as a pandemic, as well as rebuilding of nations that had been affected by world wars (examples include Zimbabwe and Germany). Considering the renewed interest in solidarity taxes in the wake of COVID-19, author Attiya Waris reviews the history of solidarity taxes, and discusses key lessons from the past, in addition to drawing these lessons and findings into policy reccomendations moving forward.
Where did the $225 million or more generated between March 2009 and December 2019 by the Go-Pass go? It's hard to get a clear picture today of how the fee, officially called the Infrastructure Development Fund (Idef), was used. For the past 12 years, the Idef was established to provide the financially unbalanced Congolese Airways Authority (Régie des voies aériennes, RVA) with the necessary funds to develop the country's airport infrastructure.
This analysis from the CIC team looks at what empirical research says about why trust matters for many different forms of political, social, and economic development—and why we should take declining trust seriously. The team also takes a look at what we know about the determinants of trust, in particular corruption, inequality, and history. Lastly, this analysis discsusses the different policy options to restore and nurture trust.