One year after Kofi Annan presented his six-point plan for ending the Syrian civil war, it can only be called a failure. But it is necessaryto recall the situation facing the UN-Arab League envoy and his team in early 2012.

Read the full Stability article here

Mar 11, 2013
Richard Gowan
Middle East, Syria

Read the full World Politics Review article here

Dec 01, 2011
Richard Gowan
Middle East, Syria

Read the full Foreign Policy article here

Jan 06, 2012
Richard Gowan
Middle East, Syria

Russia is trying to look tough at the U.N. Security Council this week, promising to reject a resolution backed by the European Union, the U.S. and the Arab League that calls for a political transition in Syria to end the violence there.* This is a new phase in Moscow’s efforts to defend its friend, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, which included blocking an earlier resolution in October that threatened U.N. sanctions against Damascus. Yet while Russia can use its veto power to paralyze the council again, the diplomatic battle over Syria has highlighted its weakness in global affairs.

Jan 31, 2012
Richard Gowan
Middle East, Syria

In trying to think through what outsiders should do to stop the killing in Syria, the only unambiguous issue is the moral one. Syrian President Bashar al-Assad is perpetrating crimes against humanity upon his own people. The “responsibility to protect,” unanimously adopted at the U.N. in 2005, stipulates that when states fail to protect their own citizens from mass atrocities, other states have an affirmative responsibility to act. Only a gross cynic—say, Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov—could argue that Assad has not triggered this international obligation.

Feb 10, 2012
James Traub
Middle East, Syria

When United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon selected his predecessor Kofi Annan last week as his envoy to mediate the ongoing crisis in Syria, most observers thought it was an obvious choice. But Ban’s decision represents an important twist in a sometimes complex relationship between the two men -- and a high-stakes attempt to maintain the U.N.’s role in the Middle East, where it has been active since the 1940s.

Feb 28, 2012
Richard Gowan
Middle East, Syria

After months of aggressive debates over the Middle East, the U.N. Security Council is starting to calm down. Last week the council released a statement supporting Kofi Annan’s peace plan for Syria -- which calls for a U.N.-supervised cease-fire and an “inclusive Syrian-led political process” -- signaling the change of mood. The Western powers reached consensus with Russia and China on the text, toning down and cutting controversial passages, after Moscow called for daily cease-fires to let humanitarian aid reach suffering Syrians.

Mar 27, 2012
Richard Gowan
Middle East, Syria

Bashar al-Assad said he's stop shooting on April 10. He lied.  So what now?

Read the full Foreign Policy article here

Apr 10, 2012
Bruce Jones
Middle East, Syria

Kofi Annan’s new mission to Syria is among the toughest of his diplomatic career. Assad is no pushover and is not hesitant to use force to maintain his position in power—as his brutal assault on Homs shows.

Read the full Daily Beast article here.

Mar 03, 2012
Bruce Jones
Middle East, Syria

When the United Nations sends peacekeepers to war zones, there are often excessive expectations about what they can achieve. By contrast, pessimism surrounds the U.N. Supervision Mission in Syria (UNSMIS), which is supposed to oversee a ceasefire and create space for talks between the government of President Bashar al-Assad and its opponents. U.S. officials, having fought hard in the Security Council to maximize the mission's autonomy and authority,have warned that it is too weak to succeed.

May 02, 2012
Richard Gowan
Middle East, Syria