After the discovery of a covert nuclear program in Iraq in 1991, the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) role transformed from promoting the peaceful use of nuclear energy to verifying compliance with nonproliferation agreements. Over the next decade, the nuclear programs of three other countries - the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, South Africa, and Libya - further tested the IAEA's ability to locate nuclear weapons and dismantle them.
The Aid Worker Security Database (AWSD) records major incidents of violence against aid workers, with incident reports from 1997 through the present. Initiated in 2005, to date the AWSD remains the single most comprehensive global source of this data, providing a much-needed quantitative evidence base for analysis of the changing security environment for civilian aid operations. For more detail on the AWSD click here.
In the past several years, key governments and multilateral institutions have devoted considerable effort to the task of more effectively integrating development and security policy responses to the related challenges of countries affected by conflict, post-conflict peacebuilding, and conflict prevention. The looming deadline of the Millennium Development Goals, has focused attention on this important nexus and the near impossibility of crisis- and conflict-affected states achieving these goals unless development and security is more effectively integrated.
With each new year of data, and each new intergovernmental report, it becomes harder to deny the scale and urgency of the energy transition required to prevent catastrophic anthropogenic climate change. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change urges countries to take action to prevent a rise in temperature by more than 1.5°C, and warns of catastrophic consequences of a rise above 2°C. Yet current policies and pledges fall far short of hitting these targets.
Peacebuilding continues to gain recognition in international and national spheres for the crucial role it plays in laying the foundations for sustainable peace. In the last two decades, the United Nations has developed its peacebuilding architecture (PBA) in order to strengthen its responses to countries recovering from conflict. Within this larger context, 2015 will be a critical year for peacebuilding as member states undertake a comprehensive review of the UN PBA.
Member states are increasingly looking to 2015 as a milestone for progress on United Nations Security Council reform. 2015 marks the seventieth anniversary of the UN, fifty years since the implementation of the last (and only) Council enlargement, and ten years since the 2005 World Summit. This paper provides an overview of the current context, an explanation of global perspectives on UNSC reform, and analysis of discussions on UNSC reform in and around the African Union.