With each new year of data, and each new intergovernmental report, it becomes harder to deny the scale and urgency of the energy transition required to prevent catastrophic anthropogenic climate change. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change urges countries to take action to prevent a rise in temperature by more than 1.5°C, and warns of catastrophic consequences of a rise above 2°C. Yet current policies and pledges fall far short of hitting these targets.
COVID-19 has underlined that spatial inequality is relevant—and costly—everywhere: not only in developing countries. The pandemic has exposed sharp inequalities in prosperous cities, such as New York and San Francisco, as well as in slums and informal settlements in developing countries such as Kenya and Iran. This paper presents the results of a rapid appraisal carried out in May 2020. It surveys how existing urban inequalities have played out in practice, how spatial inequality has shaped the repercussions of COVID-19, and how housing-related program and community responses have helped close—or exacerbated—these gaps. It also outlines the opportunities and prospects for longer term reforms.
Human rights have increasingly been impacted by the development of emerging technologies, which have raised many problematic issues in previous years. Many of the issues are not new, but they are greatly exacerbated by the scale and proliferation of AI, big data, and the rise of algorithmic decision-making.
All three of the recent UN secretary-general reports on peacebuilding and sustaining peace (2018, 2019, and 2020) take note of the need to enhance collaboration between the UN—not only its development system but also its peace and security and humanitarian arms—with international financial institutions (IFIs), namely the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF).
In September, Afghanistan and the Taliban began conducting peace negotiations to plan a road map for the country’s future after the withdrawal of United States forces. A key challenge for this process is the status of Afghanistan’s current constitution. This report, published by the United States Institute of Peace in partnership with CIC, explores some of the constitutional questions that are likely to arise in the course of the negotiations and provides suggestions for how the peace process might resolve them.